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The Rise and Fall of the Gros Michel Banana

The Rise and Fall of the Gros Michel Banana-1

Bananas, the sweet and reliable snack many enjoy, hold a significant place in the United States' fruit market. However, the bananas we savor today, known as the Cavendish, replaced their predecessor, the Gros Michel, due to a relentless fungus and the complexities of international trade. In this blog, we explore the intriguing journey of the Gros Michel banana, its pivotal role in international trade, and the reasons behind the switch to the Cavendish.

The Rise of Gros Michel: History's Most Famous Banana

Originating from Southeast Asia, the Gros Michel or "Big Mike" banana reached the Caribbean thanks to French naturalist Nicolas Boudin. French botanist Jean Francois Pouyat then transported it to Jamaica. By the early 20th century, Gros Michel bananas dominated international trade, with banana plantations exporting this thick-skinned, easy-to-ship fruit worldwide. The Gros Michel played a vital role in popularizing bananas in regions where cultivation was impossible, making it a staple of several countries' economies.


Fungus Fallout: How Panama Disease Shaped Banana History

The 1800s threatened the banana industry significantly: Panama disease, a fungus causing banana plants to wilt. Originating in Panama, the fungus spread and wreaked havoc in countries like Honduras and Costa Rica throughout the first half of the 20th century. The banana industry had no choice but to pivot to a new cultivar, the Cavendish, which was chosen for its resistance to Panama disease. The transition was slow, but by the 1960s, the Cavendish had entirely replaced the Gros Michel.

The Future of Bananas

While the Cavendish has become synonymous with bananas, a new threat looms. Panama disease has continued to evolve, leading to the modern Race 4, also known as TR4 or fusarium wilt, which emerged in the 1980s. As this new strain inches closer to Latin America, where a significant portion of Cavendish bananas are grown, the risk of losing this variety becomes a concerning reality.


The story of the Gros Michel serves as a reminder that the fruits we often take for granted are entangled in a delicate dance with nature, trade, and persistent threats that demand our attention. As we enjoy the creamy sweetness of Cavendish bananas, let's also appreciate the journey that brings this delicious fruit to our table.

Reference: How the World's Favorite Banana Became Extinct (And the Odds It Will Happen Again)

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